The Jalapeños had two smoky children: Morita and Meco (Brown). Meco is the spicier wild-child. Morita is his slightly milder, more flavorful younger sister.
Chipotle is pronounced “chi-POHT-lay.” Morita jalapeño chiles are the milder, more flavorful, and more popular varietal that is more commonly exported, because it’s tamer than the hotter Meco (brown) chipotle that is more popularly consumed in Mexico.
The whole pepper provides a lot of control of heat, and flavor. It is superior to the powder because, dried, and stored properly, it preserves the essential oils that produce the big flavor, and its heat, much better.
The Morita varieal of chipotle is ripened on the plant as long as possible, to maximize the flavor, and sugars, of the fruit, as it turns from green to red. The peppers are then harvested, and immediately smoked for just a few days, until they become a leathery, smoky wonder. At 2,500 to 8,000 SHU, it’s a low, to lower-medium heat pepper, full of big smoky flavor.
They can be ground, boiled in water or broth, or added to liquid-based salsas, with things like tomato, or tomatillo, to be reconstituted. If the seeds and pith are removed, they are a very low heat.
They are added to dishes to add a low-to-medium heat, and a desired smokey flavor that’s necessary to achieve a classic Southwestern flavor.
Native to Central America and Mexico, today it is commercially produced in various parts of Mexico, primarily Jalisco, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes. There is also a large commercial production in New Mexico, in the United States.
The name “chipotle” originates from the Aztec word for them, “chilpoctli,” which is simply: “smoked chile.” The process to preserve them was created by Mezoamerican peoples long before the Aztec. Columbus definitely came across smoky dried peppers, because today’s Spanish paprika, and other paprikas of Europe, originated in the Native American drying process. Today, they are still largely a staple of Mexican cooking, although migration, and chefs popularized them in TexMex, New Mexican, and Californian/New American cuisines.
In Central, and Southern, Mexico, fully ripened red jalapeños are cold-smoked in large pits, atop racks constructed of wood, traditionally, or metal, commercially. The fire is in a nearby pit, traditionally, or smoke box, commercially. A connecting tunnel, or tube, vents the smoke from the firebox into the base of the chile racks, bathing the ripened red jalapeõs in smoke, and gently drying them out.
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